All Materials which are recovered through Solvent Extraction have an effect on Crude Oil Quality. In addition to these effect there are other Factors involving Crude Oil Storage, Handling and Transport.
The process of Degumming is based on the process for removal Phosphatides, which is also called gums. The common usage refers to the array of Phosphatides present in mostly all Crude Oil, although all Crude Vegetable Oils contain Gums. Degumming of oil is done to prepare degummed oil for Caustic & Physical Refining.
Water & Phosphoric Acid added to Crude Oil to hydrate the Phosphatides& thus prepare them for removal by gravitational forces or Centrifugation. The Centrifugation type is used in the medium Process.
The Hydrable Phosphatides (HP) are readily removed by the addition of water & Phosphoric Acid, whereas the Non Hydrable Phosphotides (NHP) are relatively unaffected by water & tend to more oil soluble (i.e. remain in oil phase to remove the same) some quantity of Caustic may be given to remove the same (that is called partially Neutralize with dilute lye (Hydration Water). Deep degumming utilizes a reagent like acid to chilate Iron, Calcium and Magnesium away from NHP Complex once the Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are removed from NHP Complex Phosphatides become hydrable.
Enzymatic degumming also utilizes on enzyme to modify the NHP into hydrated gums.
Neutralization or Caustic Refining Process can be occuring for Crude Oil, Crude Degumming Oil or a mixture. The Long –mix Caustic refining System is recommended. Less Caustic use lower neutral oil less and lower the cost of Caustic and soap stock with the use of two water phases, it is possible to produce good refined oil with low 'P' content and low soap content.
The Reaction involved in Degumming & Alkali Refinery is as follows:
- Phospholipids (HP) + Water = Hydrated gums
- Phospholipids (NHP) + Acid or Alkali = Hydrated gums
- Metal/phospholipids complex + Acid = Hydrated metal gums
- Free Fatty acid + Alkali = Soap
Pre - Bleaching
Bleaching step is involved to remove or reduce the levels of the following in Neutralized oil :
- Pigment (Color)
- Traces metals
In this process approach to the process for bleaching has been to treat it in terms of colour, reduction to however, barring the sporadic and infrequent occurrence of high chlorophyll levels.
Any soap or phosphatides present in the neutralized oil will require absorption, by some portion of the earth; this requires more earth than what we need for the basic adsorption treatment. Neutralize oil generally contains 5-10 ppm phosphorous (P) and 10-30 ppm soap.
The economic benefit is providing clean feed stock for bleaching in minimal earth use this means less earth cost, less chance of hydrolysis cost, longer filter cycles less neutral oil loss, less spent earth which require disposal.
The Deodorization is the last process in processing except for crystallization, tempering and packing. Deficiencies in any of the step during process cannot be overcome by deodorization step. Deodorization is a steam stripping process wherein a good quality steam, generated from derated and properly treated feed water, under low absolute pressure and sufficiently high temperature to vaporized the FFA and odoriferous compounds and carry these volatiles away from feed stock.
Packing and Filling Section
The final product taken in churns at 40/45°C. Vitamin A & D added before filling and packing then transferred to cold room for chilling/crystallization before despatch.
Highlights of Mecpro Oil Refinery Plant
Oil Refinery being offered by us is based on a totally new concept incorporating, our, over two decades of Research and Development, which gives the additional benefit of lowest utility consumption and highest productivity. The salient features of our innovations in various stages of processes are highlighted below for your kind reference.
We are hereby, highlighting the benefit of each section in our process technology:
Degumming: First time in the world zero effluent degumming process developed and eliminated centrifuges from this section due to which following processes are not required:
- Effluent discharge
- Gum separation from water
- Acidulation plant
and thus our offered Plant saves Steam, Electricity and manpower significantly.
A newly developed heating system will achieve the temperature < 1 minute, which helps to avoid deterioration of oil. There is no gasket packing in the system like PHE besides no choking of plates in the newly developed heating system, so the down time will be totally eliminated.
The new concept of Twin-bleaching developed by MECPRO reduces oil lose, as well as, less Bleaching Earth consumption to achieve the good quality oil at reduced Bleaching Earth Consumption.
A gravitational Dewaxing developed by MECPRO is better and expedites Dewaxing and the quality of oil is excellent with low cloud point.
The recent Research and Development has brought a significant level of improvement in the Deodorization process. The Fatty Acid colour is 50% less in our plant than anybody else's in the world and our Layer Converter will increase your yield up to 91% of the crude oil fed into the process, e.g. the output product is 910 kg, out of 1000 kg. The deodorization design will bring the FFA to below 0.2%.